Gin is a white grain spirit flavored with juniper berries. It is dry compared to other spirits and is most commonly used in cocktails with sweeter ingredients like tonic water or vermouth to balance the dryness.
London Dry Gin is the most common kind of gin and is used in most mixed drinks.
Old Tom Gin is a sweeter version of London Dry Gin. Simple syrup is used to distinguish this old style of gin from its contemporaries.
Plymouth Gin is a clear, slightly fruity, full-bodied gin that is very aromatic.
Dutch Gin is a lower proof type of gin and is distilled from malted grain mash similar to whiskey. Sloe Gin is a common, ready-sweetened form of gin that is traditionally made by infusing sloes (the fruit of the blackthorn) in gin.
rum sugar cane
Rum comes from fermented and distilled sugarcane by-products. It is a common belief that rum originated in Barbados and to this day the majority of rum is produced in the Caribbean and in South America, hence the concoction’s notorious connection to vacation fun and ultimate relaxation.
Light Rums – Also referred to as silver or white rums, these rums generally have very little flavor aside from a general sweetness, and serve accordingly as a base for cocktails. Light rums are sometimes filtered after aging to remove any color.
Gold Rums – Also known as amber rums, these dark colored, medium-bodied rums are generally aged in wooden barrels (usually the charred white oak barrels that are the byproduct of Bourbon Whiskey).
Spiced Rum – These rums obtain their flavor through addition of spices and, sometimes, caramel. Most are darker in color, and based on gold rums. Some are significantly darker, while many cheaper brands are made from inexpensive white rums and darkened with artificial caramel color.
Dark Rum – Also known as black rum, it is generally aged longer, in heavily charred barrels. Dark rum has a much stronger flavor than either light or gold rum. It is used to provide substance in rum drinks, as well as color. In addition to uses in mixed drinks, dark rum is the type of rum most commonly used in cooking.
Flavored Rum – Some manufacturers have begun to sell rums infused with flavors of fruits. These serve to flavor similarly themed tropical drinks, which generally comprise less than 40% alcohol, and are also often drunk neat or on the rocks.
Over Proof Rum – This grade of rum has a higher percentage of alcohol than standard 40% alcohol. Most of these rums bear greater than 75%, preparations of 151 to 160 proof are a common occurance.
Premium Rum – As with other sipping spirits, such as Cognac and Scotch, a market exists for premium and super-premium spirits. These are generally boutique brands which sell very aged and carefully produced rums. They have more character and flavor than their “mixing” counterparts, and are generally consumed without the addition of other ingredients.
scotch & whisky
Although there are different grains, stills, flavors and countries of origin – Whisky by another name can still be whisky. Scotland, Ireland, America and Canada all produce a unique style of whisky. (Or ‘Whiskey’) With so many different whiskeys being made – you’re sure to find one that suits your specific palate. Below you will find some basic definitions that will help you understand the world of whisky.
First things first: Whether it’s called Rye, Bourbon or Scotch – they’re all liquor that is distilled from a grain and therefore are all Whiskies.
Why two different spellings?: Traditionally, whiskies made in Scotland and Canada are spelled without an “e”. Ireland and the U.S. spell it with an “e” (Whiskey).
Blended Whiskey - A combination of two or more (100 proof) whiskies. The blend is then placed into a cask for a period of time but only after each liquid has itself been aged. The amount of straight whisky in the blends will vary depending on the country and the brand’s formula. Blended Whisky is the preferred style for cocktails that call for them.
Bourbon – Named after Bourbon County, Kentucky – this whiskey must be made from a mash of between 51 & 79% corn grain. If that percentage hits 80% or higher, it becomes known as a Corn Whiskey. Bourbon is usually distilled at 160 proof which is equivalent to 80% alcohol. It must also be aged for at least 2 years in new charred oak barrels. Blending and additives other than water are unwelcome in any Bourbon making process.
Canadian Whisky – With a style considered more light-bodied and versatile – blended Canadian Whisky is a popular choice for mixed drinks. Corn and wheat – supplemented by rye, barley or barley malt are the primary grains used. While most are aged from 4-6 years in oak barrels – the minimum allowed is 3 years.
Irish Whiskey – There are different types of Irish whiskey. A single malt whiskey made from 100% malted barley distilled in a pot still and a grain whiskey made from grains distilled in a column still. Pure pot still whiskey (100% barley, both malted and un-malted, distilled in a pot still) is unique to Irish whiskey. The un-malted barley gives the pure pot still whiskey a spicy, uniquely Irish quality. Irish whiskey malt is dried on a closed kiln, away from fire and smoke – which separates it from Scotch.
Rye Whiskey – United States law says that Rye must be made from at least 51% of any grain. The most common grain used in Rye are wheat and barley. While there are many similarities to Bourbon, Rye’s spicy and slight bitter flavor set it apart. Few distilleries restarted production after prohibition was repealed, but Rye is making a trendy resurgence.
Scotch Whisky – Named for whisky made in Scotland, ‘Scotch’ is usually double-distilled, and will have a degree of smoky flavor that is derived from its barley (into malt) drying process. A peat fire allows smoke to come in contact with the malt – giving the Scotch a level of “peatiness”. The two types of Scotch are blended and single-malt.
scotch & whisky (continued)
Single-Malt Scotch Whisky – To be called a ‘single-malt’ Scotch – it must be produced by a single distillery – in one season from a single batch of whisky. There are approximately 100 distilleries in Scotland that create single-malt whisky – each with it’s own well-guarded recipe. One could spend a lifetime learning the different the different nuances and notes of the distilleries. The casks (wooden barrels) used to age the single-malts include, Sherry, Port, Burgundy, Rum, Madeira, Sauterne and many more.
Tennessee Whiskey - This is a type of American whiskey similar to bourbon, in that it is composed of at least 51% corn and aged in new, charred oak barrels, typically for four or more years. The difference between Bourbon and Tennessee whiskey is that Tennessee whiskey goes through a filtering stage called the “Lincoln County Process”. This whiskey is filtered through a thick layer of maple charcoal. This step gives the whiskey a distinctive flavor and jump-starts the aging process. The process is named for Lincoln County, Tennessee, which is where the Jack Daniel’s distillery was originally located. In 1871, the Jack Daniel’s distillery, and the surrounding area became part of the newly created Moore County. See: Jack Daniel’s and George Dickel.
Private / Independent Bottler – A company that will contract with a malt distillery to buy individual casks of malt whisky. The ‘bottler’ will use it’s own label on the bottle but will indicate the distillery of origin. Independent bottlers include, Cadenhead, Gordon & MacPhail, Hart Brothers and Montgomeries.
Contrary to popular belief, tequila isn’t from a cactus and doesn’t need a worm as an essential part of the process. Traditionally, it is made in the Tequila region of Mexico from the fermented juices of the blue Agave plant. Although the blue Agave may appear similar to a cactus it actually is a member of a different genus group altogether. As for the worm at the bottom of the bottle, it is a very well known legend but also completely untrue. A worm was once placed in the bottle as a simple marketing ploy and it obviously worked.
Blanco (White or Silver) – An unaged tequila that goes directly from distillation to the bottle.
Oro (Gold) – This is when caramel flavors are added to Blanco tequila in order to smooth out the taste.
Reposado (Rested) – In order to be labeled as a Reposado, the tequila must be aged for at least two months in oak barrels.
Anejo (Aged) – The Anejo is aged in oak barrels for at least one year.
Reserva - Although not a category in itself, it is a special Añejo that certain distillers age in oak casks for up to 8 years.
Both Russia and Poland claim to be the originators of vodka. Vodka is produced from the fermentation of a sugar source by yeast. Most vodka comes from grains, such as rye, wheat, oats and barley, but it can even be produced from potatoes.
brandy & cognac
Brandy is matured in Oak Barrels
The ABCs of VS, VSOP & XO
There are different legal classifications for Armagnac, Calvados (dry Brandy made from apples) and Cognac. The two most important factors are age and time spent maturing in oak barrels.
VS = Very Special
VSOP = Very Superior Old Pale
XO = Extra Old
For the different brandies the classifications breakdown as follows:
Armagnac VS = A 2 year minimum in barrels.
Armagnac VSOP = A 5 year minimum in barrels.
Armagnac XO = A 6 year minimum in barrels.
Armagnac Hors d’Age = A 10 year minimum in barrels.
Armagnac Vintage = All of the grapes must be from the harvest year that appears on the label.
Calvados Fine/Three Stars = A 2 year minimum in barrels.
Calvados Vieux/Reserve = A 3 year minimum in barrels.
Calvados VO/Vieille Reserve/VSOP = A 4 year minimum in barrels.
Calvados Extra/XO/Napoleon/Hors d’Age/Age Inconnu = A 6 year minimum in barrels.
Cognac VS/Three Stars = A 2 year minimum in barrels.
Cognac VSOP = A 4 year minimum in barrels.
Cognac XO/Hors d’Age/Napoleon/Extra = A 6 year minimum in barrels.
Cognac Vintage = All of the grapes must be from the harvest year that appears on the label.
How to Stock A Basic Party Bar:
A party without glass is a party without class.
Having a Party?
(2) Bottles of Vodka. The Vodka will go the fastest. Be prepared. Sure we have Grey Goose. We also recommend Zyr.
(1) Bottle of Gin. For Martinis and your favorite tonic. Sure we have Bombay. We also recommend Junipero.
(1) Bottle of Dark Rum. Always a crowd pleaser! Sure we have Captain Morgan. We also recommend Ron Zaccapa.
(1) Bottle of White Rum. Someone always prefers the light-stuff. Sure we have Meyer’s. We also recommend 10 Cane.
(1) Bottle of Tequila. For Margaritas, Shots, & Sips. Sure we have Jose Cuervo. We also recommend El Tesoro.
(1) Bottle of Tennessee Whisky. Used for many a mixed drink. Sure we have Jack Daniels. We also recommend George Dickel.
(1) Bottle of Single-malt Scotch. At least one to start. Sure we have Macallan. We also recommend Balvenie.
(1) Bottle of Blended Scotch. Don’t underestimate its popularity. Sure we have Dewar’s. We also recommend Johnnie Walker.
(1) Bottle of Bourbon. It’s not just for Coke anymore. Sure we have Maker’s Mark. We also recommend Basil Hayden.
Other items you might consider:
(1) Bottle of Schnapps. Try Peachtree, Rumplemintz and Black Haus for example.
(1) Bottle of Triple Sec. Bols or Binyamina.
(1) Bottle of Sweet/Dry Vermouth. Try Martini & Rossi, Noilly Pratt, Vya, or Cinzano Boissiere.
(1) Bottle of Coffee Liquor. Try Baileys, Kahlua, Starbucks, or Patron XO Café